Operators are special symbols that perform operations on variables and values. For example,

`print(5 + 6) # 11`

Here, `+`

is an operator that adds two numbers: **5** and **6**.

## Types of Python Operators

Here's a list of different types of Python operators that we will learn in this tutorial.

- Arithmetic Operators
- Assignment Operators
- Comparison Operators
- Logical Operators
- Bitwise Operators
- Special Operators

## 1. Python Arithmetic Operators

Arithmetic operators are used to perform mathematical operations like addition, subtraction, multiplication, etc. For example,

`sub = 10 - 5 # 5`

Here, `-`

is an arithmetic operator that subtracts two values or variables.

Operator | Operation | Example |
---|---|---|

`+` |
Addition | `5 + 2 = 7` |

`-` |
Subtraction | `4 - 2 = 2` |

`*` |
Multiplication | `2 * 3 = 6` |

`/` |
Division | `4 / 2 = 2` |

`//` |
Floor Division | `10 // 3 = 3` |

`%` |
Modulo | `5 % 2 = 1` |

`**` |
Power | `4 ** 2 = 16` |

## Example 1: Arithmetic Operators in Python

```
a = 7
b = 2
# addition
print ('Sum: ', a + b)
# subtraction
print ('Subtraction: ', a - b)
# multiplication
print ('Multiplication: ', a * b)
# division
print ('Division: ', a / b)
# floor division
print ('Floor Division: ', a // b)
# modulo
print ('Modulo: ', a % b)
# a to the power b
print ('Power: ', a ** b)
```

**Output**

Sum: 9 Subtraction: 5 Multiplication: 14 Division: 3.5 Floor Division: 3 Modulo: 1 Power: 49

In the above example, we have used multiple arithmetic operators,

`+`

to add`a`

and`b`

`-`

to subtract`b`

from`a`

`*`

to multiply`a`

and`b`

`/`

to divide`a`

by`b`

`//`

to floor divide`a`

by`b`

`%`

to get the remainder`**`

to get`a`

to the power`b`

## 2. Python Assignment Operators

Assignment operators are used to assign values to variables. For example,

```
# assign 5 to x
x = 5
```

Here, `=`

is an assignment operator that assigns **5** to `x`

.

Here's a list of different assignment operators available in Python.

Operator | Name | Example |
---|---|---|

`=` |
Assignment Operator | `a = 7` |

`+=` |
Addition Assignment | `a += 1 # a = a + 1` |

`-=` |
Subtraction Assignment | `a -= 3 # a = a - 3` |

`*=` |
Multiplication Assignment | `a *= 4 # a = a * 4` |

`/=` |
Division Assignment | `a /= 3 # a = a / 3` |

`%=` |
Remainder Assignment | `a %= 10 # a = a % 10` |

`**=` |
Exponent Assignment | `a **= 10 # a = a ** 10` |

## Example 2: Assignment Operators

```
# assign 10 to a
a = 10
# assign 5 to b
b = 5
# assign the sum of a and b to a
a += b # a = a + b
print(a)
# Output: 15
```

Here, we have used the `+=`

operator to assign the sum of `a`

and `b`

to `a`

.

Similarly, we can use any other assignment operators as per our needs.

## 3. Python Comparison Operators

Comparison operators compare two values/variables and return a boolean result: `True`

or `False`

. For example,

```
a = 5
b = 2
print (a > b) # True
```

Here, the `>`

comparison operator is used to compare whether `a`

is greater than `b`

or not.

Operator | Meaning | Example |
---|---|---|

`==` |
Is Equal To | `3 == 5` gives us `False` |

`!=` |
Not Equal To | `3 != 5` gives us `True` |

`>` |
Greater Than | `3 > 5` gives us `False` |

`<` |
Less Than | `3 < 5` gives us `True` |

`>=` |
Greater Than or Equal To | `3 >= 5` give us `False` |

`<=` |
Less Than or Equal To | `3 <= 5` gives us `True` |

## Example 3: Comparison Operators

```
a = 5
b = 2
# equal to operator
print('a == b =', a == b)
# not equal to operator
print('a != b =', a != b)
# greater than operator
print('a > b =', a > b)
# less than operator
print('a < b =', a < b)
# greater than or equal to operator
print('a >= b =', a >= b)
# less than or equal to operator
print('a <= b =', a <= b)
```

**Output**

a == b = False a != b = True a > b = True a < b = False a >= b = True a <= b = False

**Note:** Comparison operators are used in decision-making and loops. We'll discuss more of the comparison operator and decision-making in later tutorials.

## 4. Python Logical Operators

Logical operators are used to check whether an expression is `True`

or `False`

. They are used in decision-making. For example,

```
a = 5
b = 6
print((a > 2) and (b >= 6)) # True
```

Here, `and`

is the logical operator **AND**. Since both `a > 2`

and `b >= 6`

are `True`

, the result is `True`.

Operator | Example | Meaning |
---|---|---|

`and` |
a and b |
Logical AND:`True` only if both the operands are `True` |

`or` |
a or b |
Logical OR:`True` if at least one of the operands is `True` |

`not` |
not a |
Logical NOT:`True` if the operand is `False` and vice-versa. |

## Example 4: Logical Operators

```
# logical AND
print(True and True) # True
print(True and False) # False
# logical OR
print(True or False) # True
# logical NOT
print(not True) # False
```

**Note**: Here is the truth table for these logical operators.

## 5. Python Bitwise operators

Bitwise operators act on operands as if they were strings of binary digits. They operate bit by bit, hence the name.

For example, **2** is `10`

in binary, and **7** is `111`

.

**In the table below:** Let `x` = **10** (`0000 1010`

in binary) and `y` = **4** (`0000 0100`

in binary)

Operator | Meaning | Example |
---|---|---|

`&` |
Bitwise AND | x & y = 0 (`0000 0000` ) |

`|` |
Bitwise OR | x | y = 14 (`0000 1110` ) |

`~` |
Bitwise NOT | ~x = -11 (`1111 0101` ) |

`^` |
Bitwise XOR | x ^ y = 14 (`0000 1110` ) |

`>>` |
Bitwise right shift | x >> 2 = 2 (`0000 0010` ) |

`<<` |
Bitwise left shift | x 0010 1000) |

## 6. Python Special operators

Python language offers some special types of operators like the **identity** operator and the **membership** operator. They are described below with examples.

### Identity operators

In Python, `is`

and `is not`

are used to check if two values are located at the same memory location.

It's important to note that having two variables with equal values doesn't necessarily mean they are identical.

Operator | Meaning | Example |
---|---|---|

`is` |
`True` if the operands are identical (refer to the same object) |
`x is True` |

`is not` |
`True` if the operands are not identical (do not refer to the same object) |
`x is not True` |

### Example 4: Identity operators in Python

```
x1 = 5
y1 = 5
x2 = 'Hello'
y2 = 'Hello'
x3 = [1,2,3]
y3 = [1,2,3]
print(x1 is not y1) # prints False
print(x2 is y2) # prints True
print(x3 is y3) # prints False
```

Here, we see that `x1` and `y1` are integers of the same values, so they are equal as well as identical. The same is the case with `x2` and `y2` (strings).

But `x3` and `y3` are lists. They are equal but not identical. It is because the interpreter locates them separately in memory, although they are equal.

### Membership operators

In Python, `in`

and `not in`

are the membership operators. They are used to test whether a value or variable is found in a sequence (string, list, tuple, set and dictionary).

In a dictionary, we can only test for the presence of a key, not the value.

Operator | Meaning | Example |
---|---|---|

`in` |
`True` if value/variable is found in the sequence |
`5 in x` |

`not in` |
`True` if value/variable is not found in the sequence |
`5 not in x` |

## Example 5: Membership operators in Python

```
message = 'Hello world'
dict1 = {1:'a', 2:'b'}
# check if 'H' is present in message string
print('H' in message) # prints True
# check if 'hello' is present in message string
print('hello' not in message) # prints True
# check if '1' key is present in dict1
print(1 in dict1) # prints True
# check if 'a' key is present in dict1
print('a' in dict1) # prints False
```

**Output**

True True True False

Here, `'H'`

is in `message`, but `'hello'`

is not present in `message` (remember, Python is case-sensitive).

Similarly, `1`

is key, and `'a'`

is the value in dictionary `dict1`. Hence, `'a' in y`

returns `False`

.

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